Database Security is one topic that is especially important for Database Administrators or Developers to learn. Especially, if they are working in the production environment. It is a fact that any application can be hacked but the database may contain sensitive information which must be kept safe at all costs. Protecting databases from attacks is a complicated process, but it is often the simplest flaws that result in the most successful attacks. By focusing on the fundamentals, enterprises can maximize database security.
The common thread of database security is that it rarely ships with security already enabled by default, and its configuration is not a one-time task for database administrators. Organizations should regularly assess their software packages for unnecessary features and uninstall them to reduce the attack surface of their network.
All Blue Solution’s team has found that many database vulnerabilities keep plaguing organizations repeatedly. The following are the top 10 most common database security vulnerabilities:
1. Weak username/password and default credentials:
An organization might find it difficult to maintain thousands of databases. A good way to increase your database protection is to remove the default, blank, and weak log-in credentials. Hackers keep track of default accounts and will use them if they can get their hands on them.
2. SQL injections:
Here is how it works: The hackers use a SQL injection string to input commands into a web application to extract data from databases, create new accounts, edit user profiles, etc. The ease with which this can be done makes SQL injection among the most serious attacks around.
3. User and group with extensive privileges:
Organizations need to be sure that they do not grant privileges to users who will abuse them. Instead, All Blue Solutions recommends only making users part of groups or roles, which can be managed collectively more easily than if users were assigned direct rights.
4. Needlessly enabled database features:
For every database installation, there are add-on packages that most companies will not use. As a result, they should look for packages that do not use and disable or uninstall them. Additionally, it simplifies patch management as zero-day attacks can be avoided through these vectors. If those packages need to be patched, your organization won’t have to scramble to get them done promptly.
5. Damaged configuration management:
Similarly, databases have many different configuration options that DBAs can use to fine-tune performance and enhance functionality. Organizations need to watch out for unsafe configurations that could be enabled by default or turned on for the convenience of DBAs or application developers.
6. Buffer overflows:
Another method of attack is known as a buffer overflow. This happens when input sources are flooded with far more characters than an application was expecting. For example, someone might add 100 characters into an input box asking for a Social Security number (SSN). It took vendors a long time to find and fix the glitches that allow these attacks. This is another reason why patching is always recommended.
7. Privilege escalation:
In the same way, databases often have common vulnerabilities that allow hackers to gain administrative access through a low privilege account. For example, an attacker might misuse a function that runs under a database. As these vulnerabilities are found, administrators need to control them with timely updates and patching.
8. Denial-of-service attack:
The SQL Slammer provided a clear illustration of how hackers can exploit DBMS vulnerabilities to take down database servers through a flood of traffic. While the SQL Slammer first appeared in 2003, it is still targeting unpatched servers.
9. Unpatched databases:
Database administrators should patch databases in a timely fashion because the risk of getting hacked today is higher than the risk of applying a patch.
10. Unencrypted vulnerable data at rest and in motion:
Organizations should never store sensitive data in clear text within a database table. It is not only the hackers who can get to this information; it’s also your employees or even your customers. The best way to protect data that needs to remain confidential is through encryption.